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Posts published in “International Humanitarian Law”

Whither now, Additional Protocol I?

Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions was adopted in 1977 to ‘remedy shortcomings‘ in the original conventions of 1949. It contains a more detailed set of standards in all areas of international armed conflict, and expands the definition of ‘international armed conflict’ to include wars of national liberation (Art. 1.4.). (Non-international armed conflicts are governed by Additional Protocol II.) It has now been adopted by 167 states. Additional Protocol I is often cited in reference to the Arab-Israeli conflict. For example, it is said that Israel’s recent actions in Gaza violated the principle of distinction ‘enshrined in Articles 57 and…